|Abstract:Taking the Loess Plateau around Yan''an as the research object, the vegetation around the oil well after oil exploitation was investigated, and the effects of oil well mining on plant community composition and species diversity were studied. The results showed that the plants with the most important plants around the oil wells were: chloris, yam, and chicory. The important values were 52.57, 42.55 and 41.80, respectively, indicating that these plants were more tolerant to petroleum pollution. With the increase of the distance from the oil well, the number of species S, Margale index D, Shannon-Wiener index H'', and Pielou index E all showed a law of decreasing first and then increasing. The species diversity was positively correlated with the distance, indicating that the oil exploitation would be a plant. The growth of communities and plants has a certain inhibitory effect. There was a significant positive correlation between the Margale index and the Shannon-Wiener index (P<0.01), indicating that the total number of species in each sample is closely related to the number of species in the sample. There is a slight correlation or no correlation between the uniformity index Pielou and the Margale index and the Shannon-Wiener index (P>0.05), indicating that the number of species and the total number of species are not related to the uniformity of vegetation distribution.